Two-dimensional almost-Riemannian structures are generalized Riemannian structures on surfaces for which a local orthonormal frame is given by a Lie bracket generating pair of vector fields that can become collinear. We study the relation between the topological invariants of an almost-Riemannian structure on a compact oriented surface and the rank-two vector bundle over the surface which defines the structure. We analyse the generic case including the presence of tangency points, i.e. points where two generators of the distribution and their Lie bracket are linearly dependent. The main result of the paper provides a classification of oriented almost-Riemannian structures on compact oriented surfaces in terms of the Euler number of the vector bundle corresponding to the structure. Moreover, we present a Gauss-Bonnet formula for almost-Riemannian structures with tangency points.

%B Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Anal. Non Lineaire 27 (2010) 793-807 %I Elsevier %G en_US %U http://hdl.handle.net/1963/3870 %1 839 %2 Mathematics %3 Functional Analysis and Applications %$ Submitted by Andrea Wehrenfennig (andreaw@sissa.it) on 2010-05-31T14:15:39Z\\nNo. of bitstreams: 1\\n0908.2564v1.pdf: 302590 bytes, checksum: 15369151ee10bb886dc6678350dee7f5 (MD5) %R 10.1016/j.anihpc.2009.11.011 %0 Report %D 2006 %T Stability of planar nonlinear switched systems %A Ugo Boscain %A Grégoire Charlot %A Mario Sigalotti %X We consider the time-dependent nonlinear system ˙ q(t) = u(t)X(q(t)) + (1 − u(t))Y (q(t)), where q ∈ R2, X and Y are two smooth vector fields, globally asymptotically stable at the origin and u : [0,∞) → {0, 1} is an arbitrary measurable function. Analysing the topology of the set where X and Y are parallel, we give some sufficient and some necessary conditions for global asymptotic stability, uniform with respect to u(.). Such conditions can be verified without any integration or construction of a Lyapunov function, and they are robust under small perturbations of the vector fields. %B Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. 15 (2006) 415-432 %G en_US %U http://hdl.handle.net/1963/1710 %1 2441 %2 Mathematics %3 Functional Analysis and Applications %$ Submitted by Andrea Wehrenfennig (andreaw@sissa.it) on 2006-01-18T08:35:31Z\\nNo. of bitstreams: 1\\nmath.OC0502361.pdf: 322404 bytes, checksum: e56f0d709d97e2e300e3cb9d4a629a1b (MD5) %0 Journal Article %J Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B 5 (2005) 957-990 %D 2005 %T Nonisotropic 3-level quantum systems: complete solutions for minimum time and minimum energy %A Ugo Boscain %A Thomas Chambrion %A Grégoire Charlot %X We apply techniques of subriemannian geometry on Lie groups and of optimal synthesis on 2-D manifolds to the population transfer problem in a three-level quantum system driven by two laser pulses, of arbitrary shape and frequency. In the rotating wave approximation, we consider a nonisotropic model i.e. a model in which the two coupling constants of the lasers are different. The aim is to induce transitions from the first to the third level, minimizing 1) the time of the transition (with bounded laser amplitudes),\\n2) the energy of lasers (with fixed final time). After reducing the problem to real variables, for the purpose 1) we develop a theory of time optimal syntheses for distributional problem on 2-D-manifolds, while for the purpose 2) we use techniques of subriemannian geometry on 3-D Lie groups. The complete optimal syntheses are computed. %B Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst. Ser. B 5 (2005) 957-990 %G en_US %U http://hdl.handle.net/1963/2259 %1 1988 %2 Mathematics %3 Functional Analysis and Applications %$ Submitted by Andrea Wehrenfennig (andreaw@sissa.it) on 2007-10-18T11:55:27Z\\nNo. of bitstreams: 1\\n0409022v2.pdf: 578605 bytes, checksum: db7298996e781c3a8546c3d01ee28384 (MD5) %0 Journal Article %J ESAIM COCV 10 (2004) 593-614 %D 2004 %T Resonance of minimizers for n-level quantum systems with an arbitrary cost %A Ugo Boscain %A Grégoire Charlot %X We consider an optimal control problem describing a laser-induced population transfer on a $n$-level quantum system.\\nFor a convex cost depending only on the moduli of controls (i.e. the lasers intensities), we prove that there always exists a minimizer in resonance. This permits to justify some strategies used in experimental physics. It is also quite important because it permits to reduce remarkably the complexity of the problem (and extend some of our previous results for $n=2$ and $n=3$): instead of looking for minimizers on the sphere $S^{2n-1}\\\\subset\\\\C^n$ one is reduced to look just for minimizers on the sphere $S^{n-1}\\\\subset \\\\R^n$. Moreover, for the reduced problem, we investigate on the question of existence of strict abnormal minimizer. %B ESAIM COCV 10 (2004) 593-614 %I EDP Sciences %G en_US %U http://hdl.handle.net/1963/2910 %1 1790 %2 Mathematics %3 Functional Analysis and Applications %$ Submitted by Andrea Wehrenfennig (andreaw@sissa.it) on 2008-09-11T12:22:45Z\\nNo. of bitstreams: 1\\n0308103v2.pdf: 290972 bytes, checksum: 2195a0a0002da9f91cbc9fff24262981 (MD5) %R 10.1051/cocv:2004022