A detailed numerical study of the long time behaviour of dispersive shock waves in solutions to the Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) I equation is presented. It is shown that modulated lump solutions emerge from the dispersive shock waves. For the description of dispersive shock waves, Whitham modulation equations for KP are obtained. It is shown that the modulation equations near the soliton line are hyperbolic for the KPII equation while they are elliptic for the KPI equation leading to a focusing effect and the formation of lumps. Such a behaviour is similar to the appearance of breathers for the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the semiclassical limit.

1 aGrava, Tamara1 aKlein, Christian1 aPitton, Giuseppe uhttps://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rspa.2017.045801288nas a2200145 4500008004100000245008600041210007000127260004400197490000700241520070800248100001900956700003200975700001801007856011701025 2018 eng d00aPainlevé IV Critical Asymptotics for Orthogonal Polynomials in the Complex Plane0 aPainlevé IV Critical Asymptotics for Orthogonal Polynomials in t bNational Academy of Sciences of Ukraine0 v143 aWe study the asymptotic behaviour of orthogonal polynomials in the complex plane that are associated to a certain normal matrix model. The model depends on a parameter and the asymptotic distribution of the eigenvalues undergoes a transition for a special value of the parameter, where it develops a corner-type singularity. In the double scaling limit near the transition we determine the asymptotic behaviour of the orthogonal polynomials in terms of a solution of the Painlev´e IV equation. We determine the Fredholm determinant associated to such solution and we compute it numerically on the real line, showing also that the corresponding Painlev´e transcendent is pole-free on a semiaxis.

1 aBertola, Marco1 aElias Rebelo, José Gustavo1 aGrava, Tamara uhttps://www.math.sissa.it/publication/painlev%C3%A9-iv-critical-asymptotics-orthogonal-polynomials-complex-plane01219nas a2200145 4500008004100000245008300041210006900124260001000193520068100203100002000884700001800904700002100922700001800943856011200961 2013 en d00aOn critical behaviour in systems of Hamiltonian partial differential equations0 acritical behaviour in systems of Hamiltonian partial differentia bSISSA3 aWe study the critical behaviour of solutions to weakly dispersive Hamiltonian systems considered as perturbations of elliptic and hyperbolic systems of hydrodynamic type with two components. We argue that near the critical point of gradient catastrophe of the dispersionless system, the solutions to a suitable initial value problem for the perturbed equations are approximately described by particular solutions to the Painlev\'e-I (P$_I$) equation or its fourth order analogue P$_I^2$. As concrete examples we discuss nonlinear Schr\"odinger equations in the semiclassical limit. A numerical study of these cases provides strong evidence in support of the conjecture.

1 aDubrovin, Boris1 aGrava, Tamara1 aKlein, Christian1 aMoro, Antonio uhttps://www.math.sissa.it/publication/critical-behaviour-systems-hamiltonian-partial-differential-equations01015nas a2200133 4500008004100000245004500041210003400086260001000120520062000130100001800750700001900768700002100787856007300808 2013 en d00aOn the tritronquée solutions of P$_I^2$0 atritronquée solutions of PI2 bSISSA3 aFor equation P$_I^2$, the second member in the P$_I$ hierarchy, we prove existence of various degenerate solutions depending on the complex parameter $t$ and evaluate the asymptotics in the complex $x$ plane for $|x|\to\infty$ and $t=o(x^{2/3})$. Using this result, we identify the most degenerate solutions $u^{(m)}(x,t)$, $\hat u^{(m)}(x,t)$, $m=0,\dots,6$, called {\em tritronqu\'ee}, describe the quasi-linear Stokes phenomenon and find the large $n$ asymptotics of the coefficients in a formal expansion of these solutions. We supplement our findings by a numerical study of the tritronqu\'ee solutions.

1 aGrava, Tamara1 aKapaev, Andrey1 aKlein, Christian uhttps://www.math.sissa.it/publication/tritronqu%C3%A9e-solutions-pi201113nas a2200133 4500008004100000245006400041210005900105260002800164520069000192653002700882100001600909700001800925856003600943 2012 en d00aThe KdV hierarchy: universality and a Painleve transcendent0 aKdV hierarchy universality and a Painleve transcendent bOxford University Press3 aWe study the Cauchy problem for the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) hierarchy in the small dispersion limit where $\e\to 0$. For negative analytic initial data with a single negative hump, we prove that for small times, the solution is approximated by the solution to the hyperbolic transport equation which corresponds to $\e=0$. Near the time of gradient catastrophe for the transport equation, we show that the solution to the KdV hierarchy is approximated by a particular Painlev\'e transcendent. This supports Dubrovins universality conjecture concerning the critical behavior of Hamiltonian perturbations of hyperbolic equations. We use the Riemann-Hilbert approach to prove our results.10aSmall-Dispersion limit1 aClaeys, Tom1 aGrava, Tamara uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/692100918nas a2200133 4500008004100000245011000041210006900151260001300220520035800233653003100591100001800622700002100640856012300661 2012 en d00aNumerical study of the small dispersion limit of the Korteweg-de Vries equation and asymptotic solutions0 aNumerical study of the small dispersion limit of the Kortewegde bElsevier3 aWe study numerically the small dispersion limit for the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation $u_t+6uu_x+\epsilon^{2}u_{xxx}=0$ for $\epsilon\ll1$ and give a quantitative comparison of the numerical solution with various asymptotic formulae for small $\epsilon$ in the whole $(x,t)$-plane. The matching of the asymptotic solutions is studied numerically.10aKorteweg-de Vries equation1 aGrava, Tamara1 aKlein, Christian uhttps://www.math.sissa.it/publication/numerical-study-small-dispersion-limit-korteweg-de-vries-equation-and-asymptotic01547nas a2200133 4500008004100000245008700041210006900128260000900197520111200206100002001318700001801338700002101356856003601377 2011 en d00aNumerical Study of breakup in generalized Korteweg-de Vries and Kawahara equations0 aNumerical Study of breakup in generalized Kortewegde Vries and K bSIAM3 aThis article is concerned with a conjecture in [B. Dubrovin, Comm. Math. Phys., 267 (2006), pp. 117–139] on the formation of dispersive shocks in a class of Hamiltonian dispersive regularizations of the quasi-linear transport equation. The regularizations are characterized by two arbitrary functions of one variable, where the condition of integrability implies that one of these functions must not vanish. It is shown numerically for a large class of equations that the local behavior of their solution near the point of gradient catastrophe for the transport equation is described by a special solution of a Painlevé-type equation. This local description holds also for solutions to equations where blowup can occur in finite time. Furthermore, it is shown that a solution of the dispersive equations away from the point of gradient catastrophe is approximated by a solution of the transport equation with the same initial data, modulo terms of order $\\\\epsilon^2$, where $\\\\epsilon^2$ is the small dispersion parameter. Corrections up to order $\\\\epsilon^4$ are obtained and tested numerically.1 aDubrovin, Boris1 aGrava, Tamara1 aKlein, Christian uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/495101048nas a2200121 4500008004300000245012100043210006900164520059600233100002200829700001800851700002100869856003600890 2010 en_Ud 00aNumerical Solution of the Small Dispersion Limit of the Camassa-Holm and Whitham Equations and Multiscale Expansions0 aNumerical Solution of the Small Dispersion Limit of the CamassaH3 aThe small dispersion limit of solutions to the Camassa-Holm (CH) equation is characterized by the appearance of a zone of rapid modulated oscillations. An asymptotic description of these oscillations is given, for short times, by the one-phase solution to the CH equation, where the branch points of the corresponding elliptic curve depend on the physical coordinates via the Whitham equations. We present a conjecture for the phase of the asymptotic solution. A numerical study of this limit for smooth hump-like initial data provides strong evidence for the validity of this conjecture....1 aAbenda, Simonetta1 aGrava, Tamara1 aKlein, Christian uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/384000900nas a2200121 4500008004300000245014000043210007000183260001000253520044500263100001600708700001800724856003600742 2010 en_Ud 00aPainlevé II asymptotics near the leading edge of the oscillatory zone for the Korteweg-de Vries equation in the small-dispersion limit0 aPainlevé II asymptotics near the leading edge of the oscillatory bWiley3 aIn the small dispersion limit, solutions to the Korteweg-de Vries equation develop an interval of fast oscillations after a certain time. We obtain a universal asymptotic expansion for the Korteweg-de Vries solution near the leading edge of the oscillatory zone up to second order corrections. This expansion involves the Hastings-McLeod solution of the Painlev\\\\\\\'e II equation. We prove our results using the Riemann-Hilbert approach.1 aClaeys, Tom1 aGrava, Tamara uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/379900906nas a2200109 4500008004300000245009100043210006900134520052300203100001800726700001600744856003600760 2010 en_Ud 00aSolitonic asymptotics for the Korteweg-de Vries equation in the small dispersion limit0 aSolitonic asymptotics for the Kortewegde Vries equation in the s3 aWe study the small dispersion limit for the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation $u_t+6uu_x+\\\\epsilon^{2}u_{xxx}=0$ in a critical scaling regime where $x$ approaches the trailing edge of the region where the KdV solution shows oscillatory behavior. Using the Riemann-Hilbert approach, we obtain an asymptotic expansion for the KdV solution in a double scaling limit, which shows that the oscillations degenerate to sharp pulses near the trailing edge. Locally those pulses resemble soliton solutions of the KdV equation.1 aGrava, Tamara1 aClaeys, Tom uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/383900963nas a2200133 4500008004300000245008100043210006900124260001300193520052900206100001800735700002200753700001800775856003600793 2009 en_Ud 00aInitial value problem of the Whitham equations for the Camassa-Holm equation0 aInitial value problem of the Whitham equations for the CamassaHo bElsevier3 aWe study the Whitham equations for the Camassa-Holm equation. The equations are neither strictly hyperbolic nor genuinely nonlinear. We are interested in the initial value problem of the Whitham equations. When the initial values are given by a step function, the Whitham solution is self-similar. When the initial values are given by a smooth function, the Whitham solution exists within a cusp in the x-t plane. On the boundary of the cusp, the Whitham equation matches the Burgers solution, which exists outside the cusp.1 aGrava, Tamara1 aPierce, Virgil U.1 aTian, Fei-Ran uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/342900978nas a2200121 4500008004300000245018700043210006900230520046200299100002000761700001800781700002100799856003600820 2009 en_Ud 00aOn universality of critical behaviour in the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation, elliptic umbilic catastrophe and the {\\\\it tritronquée} solution to the Painlevé-I equation0 auniversality of critical behaviour in the focusing nonlinear Sch3 aWe argue that the critical behaviour near the point of ``gradient catastrophe\\\" of the solution to the Cauchy problem for the focusing nonlinear Schr\\\\\\\"odinger equation $ i\\\\epsilon \\\\psi_t +\\\\frac{\\\\epsilon^2}2\\\\psi_{xx}+ |\\\\psi|^2 \\\\psi =0$ with analytic initial data of the form $\\\\psi(x,0;\\\\epsilon) =A(x) e^{\\\\frac{i}{\\\\epsilon} S(x)}$ is approximately described by a particular solution to the Painlev\\\\\\\'e-I equation.1 aDubrovin, Boris1 aGrava, Tamara1 aKlein, Christian uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/252501175nas a2200109 4500008004300000245012700043210006900170520075600239100001800995700001601013856003601029 2009 en_Ud 00aUniversality of the break-up profile for the KdV equation in the small dispersion limit using the Riemann-Hilbert approach0 aUniversality of the breakup profile for the KdV equation in the 3 aWe obtain an asymptotic expansion for the solution of the Cauchy problem for the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation in the small dispersion limit near the point of gradient catastrophe (x_c,t_c) for the solution of the dispersionless equation.\\nThe sub-leading term in this expansion is described by the smooth solution of a fourth order ODE, which is a higher order analogue to the Painleve I equation. This is in accordance with a conjecture of Dubrovin, suggesting that this is a universal phenomenon for any Hamiltonian perturbation of a hyperbolic equation. Using the Deift/Zhou steepest descent method applied on the Riemann-Hilbert problem for the KdV equation, we are able to prove the asymptotic expansion rigorously in a double scaling limit.1 aGrava, Tamara1 aClaeys, Tom uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/263601399nas a2200109 4500008004300000245010600043210006900149520099600218100001801214700002101232856003601253 2008 en_Ud 00aNumerical study of a multiscale expansion of the Korteweg-de Vries equation and Painlevé-II equation0 aNumerical study of a multiscale expansion of the Kortewegde Vrie3 aThe Cauchy problem for the Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equation with small dispersion of order $\\\\e^2$, $\\\\e\\\\ll 1$, is characterized by the appearance of a zone of rapid modulated oscillations. These oscillations are approximately described by the elliptic solution of KdV where the amplitude, wave-number and frequency are not constant but evolve according to the Whitham equations. Whereas the difference between the KdV and the asymptotic solution decreases as $\\\\epsilon$ in the interior of the Whitham oscillatory zone, it is known to be only of order $\\\\epsilon^{1/3}$ near the leading edge of this zone. To obtain a more accurate description near the leading edge of the oscillatory zone we present a multiscale expansion of the solution of KdV in terms of the Hastings-McLeod solution of the Painlev\\\\\\\'e-II equation. We show numerically that the resulting multiscale solution approximates the KdV solution, in the small dispersion limit, to the order $\\\\epsilon^{2/3}$.1 aGrava, Tamara1 aKlein, Christian uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/259201358nas a2200109 4500008004300000245009600043210006900139520096500208100001801173700002101191856003601212 2007 en_Ud 00aNumerical solution of the small dispersion limit of Korteweg de Vries and Whitham equations0 aNumerical solution of the small dispersion limit of Korteweg de 3 aThe Cauchy problem for the Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equation with small dispersion of order $\\\\epsilon^2$, is characterized by the appearance of a zone of rapid modulated oscillations of wave-length of order $\\\\epsilon$. These oscillations are approximately described by the elliptic solution of KdV where the amplitude, wave-number and frequency are not constant but evolve according to the Whitham equations. In this manuscript we give a quantitative analysis of the discrepancy between the numerical solution of the KdV equation in the small dispersion limit and the corresponding approximate solution for values of $\\\\epsilon$ between $10^{-1}$ and $10^{-3}$. The numerical results are compatible with a difference of order $\\\\epsilon$ within the `interior\\\' of the Whitham oscillatory zone, of order $\\\\epsilon^{1/3}$ at the left boundary outside the Whitham zone and of order $\\\\epsilon^{1/2}$ at the right boundary outside the Whitham zone.1 aGrava, Tamara1 aKlein, Christian uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/178801084nas a2200109 4500008004300000245007900043210006900122520070800191100001800899700002100917856003600938 2007 en_Ud 00aNumerical study of a multiscale expansion of KdV and Camassa-Holm equation0 aNumerical study of a multiscale expansion of KdV and CamassaHolm3 aWe study numerically solutions to the Korteweg-de Vries and Camassa-Holm equation close to the breakup of the corresponding solution to the dispersionless equation. The solutions are compared with the properly rescaled numerical solution to a fourth order ordinary differential equation, the second member of the Painlev\\\\\\\'e I hierarchy. It is shown that this solution gives a valid asymptotic description of the solutions close to breakup. We present a detailed analysis of the situation and compare the Korteweg-de Vries solution quantitatively with asymptotic solutions obtained via the solution of the Hopf and the Whitham equations. We give a qualitative analysis for the Camassa-Holm equation1 aGrava, Tamara1 aKlein, Christian uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/252700973nas a2200109 4500008004300000245006600043210006600109520061200175100002200787700001800809856003600827 2007 en_Ud 00aReciprocal transformations and flat metrics on Hurwitz spaces0 aReciprocal transformations and flat metrics on Hurwitz spaces3 aWe consider hydrodynamic systems which possess a local Hamiltonian structure of Dubrovin-Novikov type. To such a system there are also associated an infinite number of nonlocal Hamiltonian structures. We give necessary and sufficient conditions so that, after a nonlinear transformation of the independent variables, the reciprocal system still possesses a local Hamiltonian structure of Dubrovin-Novikov type. We show that, under our hypotheses, bi-hamiltonicity is preserved by the reciprocal transformation. Finally we apply such results to reciprocal systems of genus g Whitham-KdV modulation equations.1 aAbenda, Simonetta1 aGrava, Tamara uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/221000940nas a2200109 4500008004300000245005300043210005300096520060900149100001800758700001800776856003600794 2006 en_Ud 00aLarge Parameter Behavior of Equilibrium Measures0 aLarge Parameter Behavior of Equilibrium Measures3 aWe study the equilibrium measure for a logarithmic potential in the presence of an external field V*(x) + tp(x), where t is a parameter, V*(x) is a smooth function and p(x) a monic polynomial. When p(x) is of an odd degree, the equilibrium measure is shown to be supported on a single interval as |t| is sufficiently large. When p(x) is of an even degree, the equilibrium measure is supported on two disjoint intervals as t is negatively large; it is supported on a single interval for convex p(x) as t is positively large and is likely to be supported on multiple disjoint intervals for non-convex p(x).1 aGrava, Tamara1 aTian, Fei-Ran uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/178900778nas a2200109 4500008004300000245004900043210004800092520045100140100002300591700001800614856003600632 2006 en_Ud 00aThomae type formulae for singular Z_N curves0 aThomae type formulae for singular ZN curves3 aWe give an elementary and rigorous proof of the Thomae type formula for singular $Z_N$ curves. To derive the Thomae formula we use the traditional variational method which goes back to Riemann, Thomae and Fuchs. An important step of the proof is the use of the Szego kernel computed explicitly in algebraic form for non-singular 1/N-periods. The proof inherits principal points of Nakayashiki\\\'s proof [31], obtained for non-singular ZN curves.1 aEnolski, Victor Z.1 aGrava, Tamara uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/212501078nas a2200109 4500008004300000245007500043210006900118520070500187100002200892700001800914856003600932 2005 en_Ud 00aModulation of the Camassa-Holm equation and reciprocal transformations0 aModulation of the CamassaHolm equation and reciprocal transforma3 aWe derive the modulation equations or Whitham equations for the Camassa-Holm (CH) equation. We show that the modulation equations are hyperbolic and admit bi-Hamiltonian structure. Furthermore they are connected by a reciprocal transformation to the modulation equations of the first negative flow of the Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equation. The reciprocal transformation is generated by the Casimir of the second Poisson bracket of the KdV averaged flow. We show that the geometry of the bi-Hamiltonian structure of the KdV and CH modulation equations is quite different: indeed the KdV averaged bi-Hamiltonian structure can always be related to a semisimple Frobenius manifold while the CH one cannot.1 aAbenda, Simonetta1 aGrava, Tamara uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/230501974nas a2200109 4500008004300000245009900043210006900142520157600211100002301787700001801810856003601828 2004 en_Ud 00aSingular Z_N curves, Riemann-Hilbert problem and modular solutions of the Schlesinger equation0 aSingular ZN curves RiemannHilbert problem and modular solutions 3 aWe are solving the classical Riemann-Hilbert problem of rank N>1 on the extended complex plane punctured in 2m+2 points, for NxN quasi-permutation monodromy matrices. Following Korotkin we solve the Riemann-Hilbert problem in terms of the Szego kernel of certain Riemann surfaces branched over the given 2m+2 points. These Riemann surfaces are constructed from a permutation representation of the symmetric group S_N to which the quasi-permutation monodromy representation has been reduced. The permutation representation of our problem generates the cyclic subgroup Z_N. For this reason the corresponding Riemann surfaces of genus N(m-1) have Z_N symmetry. This fact enables us to write the matrix entries of the solution of the NxN Riemann-Hilbert problem as a product of an algebraic function and theta-function quotients. The algebraic function turns out to be related to the Szego kernel with zero characteristics. From the solution of the Riemann- Hilbert problem we automatically obtain a particular solution of the Schlesinger system. The tau-function of the Schlesinger system is computed explicitly. The rank 3 problem with four singular points (0,t,1,\\\\infty) is studied in detail. The corresponding solution of the Riemann-Hilbert problem and the Schlesinger system is given in terms of Jacobi\\\'s theta-function with modulus T=T(t), Im(T)>0. The function T=T(t) is invertible if it belongs to the Siegel upper half space modulo the subgroup \\\\Gamma_0(3) of the modular group. The inverse function t=t(T) generates a solution of a general Halphen system.1 aEnolski, Victor Z.1 aGrava, Tamara uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/254000343nas a2200109 4500008004100000245005200041210004500093260001000138653003100148100001800179856003600197 1998 en d00aOn the Cauchy Problem for the Whitham Equations0 aCauchy Problem for the Whitham Equations bSISSA10aKorteweg de Vries equation1 aGrava, Tamara uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/5555