This contribution describes the implementation of a data-driven shape optimization pipeline in a naval architecture application. We adopt reduced order models in order to improve the efficiency of the overall optimization, keeping a modular and equation-free nature to target the industrial demand. We applied the above mentioned pipeline to a realistic cruise ship in order to reduce the total drag. We begin by defining the design space, generated by deforming an initial shape in a parametric way using free form deformation. The evaluation of the performance of each new hull is determined by simulating the flux via finite volume discretization of a two-phase (water and air) fluid. Since the fluid dynamics model can result very expensive—especially dealing with complex industrial geometries—we propose also a dynamic mode decomposition enhancement to reduce the computational cost of a single numerical simulation. The real-time computation is finally achieved by means of proper orthogonal decomposition with Gaussian process regression technique. Thanks to the quick approximation, a genetic optimization algorithm becomes feasible to converge towards the optimal shape.

1 aDemo, Nicola1 aOrtali, Giulio1 aGustin, Gianluca1 aRozza, Gianluigi1 aLavini, Gianpiero uhttps://www.math.sissa.it/publication/efficient-computational-framework-naval-shape-design-and-optimization-problems-means00523nas a2200109 4500008004100000245011200041210006900153100001700222700002200239700002100261856013100282 2021 eng d00aAN EXTENDED PHYSICS INFORMED NEURAL NETWORK FOR PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF PARAMETRIC OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS0 aEXTENDED PHYSICS INFORMED NEURAL NETWORK FOR PRELIMINARY ANALYSI1 aDemo, Nicola1 aStrazzullo, Maria1 aRozza, Gianluigi uhttps://www.math.sissa.it/publication/extended-physics-informed-neural-network-preliminary-analysis-parametric-optimal-control01664nas a2200169 4500008004100000022001400041245011000055210006900165300000800234490000600242520112900248100001701377700001901394700001701413700002101430856004301451 2021 eng d a2077-131200aHull Shape Design Optimization with Parameter Space and Model Reductions, and Self-Learning Mesh Morphing0 aHull Shape Design Optimization with Parameter Space and Model Re a1850 v93 aIn the field of parametric partial differential equations, shape optimization represents a challenging problem due to the required computational resources. In this contribution, a data-driven framework involving multiple reduction techniques is proposed to reduce such computational burden. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and active subspace genetic algorithm (ASGA) are applied for a dimensional reduction of the original (high fidelity) model and for an efficient genetic optimization based on active subspace property. The parameterization of the shape is applied directly to the computational mesh, propagating the generic deformation map applied to the surface (of the object to optimize) to the mesh nodes using a radial basis function (RBF) interpolation. Thus, topology and quality of the original mesh are preserved, enabling application of POD-based reduced order modeling techniques, and avoiding the necessity of additional meshing steps. Model order reduction is performed coupling POD and Gaussian process regression (GPR) in a data-driven fashion. The framework is validated on a benchmark ship.

1 aDemo, Nicola1 aTezzele, Marco1 aMola, Andrea1 aRozza, Gianluigi uhttps://www.mdpi.com/2077-1312/9/2/18500617nas a2200133 4500008004100000245014100041210006900182100002200251700001700273700002300290700002200313700002100335856012700356 2021 eng d00aThe Neural Network shifted-Proper Orthogonal Decomposition: a Machine Learning Approach for Non-linear Reduction of Hyperbolic Equations0 aNeural Network shiftedProper Orthogonal Decomposition a Machine 1 aPapapicco, Davide1 aDemo, Nicola1 aGirfoglio, Michele1 aStabile, Giovanni1 aRozza, Gianluigi uhttps://www.math.sissa.it/publication/neural-network-shifted-proper-orthogonal-decomposition-machine-learning-approach-non01174nas a2200229 4500008004100000022001400041245003900055210003800094300001100132490000600143520051100149653002600660653002500686653003100711653001100742653004100753100001900794700001700813700001700830700002100847856007600868 2021 eng d a2665-963800aPyGeM: Python Geometrical Morphing0 aPyGeM Python Geometrical Morphing a1000470 v73 aPyGeM is an open source Python package which allows to easily parametrize and deform 3D object described by CAD files or 3D meshes. It implements several morphing techniques such as free form deformation, radial basis function interpolation, and inverse distance weighting. Due to its versatility in dealing with different file formats it is particularly suited for researchers and practitioners both in academia and in industry interested in computational engineering simulations and optimization studies.10aFree form deformation10aGeometrical morphing10aInverse distance weighting10aPython10aRadial basis functions interpolation1 aTezzele, Marco1 aDemo, Nicola1 aMola, Andrea1 aRozza, Gianluigi uhttps://www.math.sissa.it/publication/pygem-python-geometrical-morphing01446nas a2200133 4500008004100000245013900041210006900180490000700249520096200256100001701218700001901235700002101254856003701275 2021 eng d00aA supervised learning approach involving active subspaces for an efficient genetic algorithm in high-dimensional optimization problems0 asupervised learning approach involving active subspaces for an e0 v433 aIn this work, we present an extension of the genetic algorithm (GA) which exploits the active subspaces (AS) property to evolve the individuals on a lower dimensional space. In many cases, GA requires in fact more function evaluations than others optimization method to converge to the optimum. Thus, complex and high-dimensional functions may result intractable with the standard algorithm. To address this issue, we propose to linearly map the input parameter space of the original function onto its AS before the evolution, performing the mutation and mate processes in a lower dimensional space. In this contribution, we describe the novel method called ASGA, presenting differences and similarities with the standard GA method. We test the proposed method over n-dimensional benchmark functions – Rosenbrock, Ackley, Bohachevsky, Rastrigin, Schaffer N. 7, and Zakharov – and finally we apply it to an aeronautical shape optimization problem.

1 aDemo, Nicola1 aTezzele, Marco1 aRozza, Gianluigi uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2006.0728201497nas a2200169 4500008004100000245010500041210006900146520085900215100002101074700001601095700001701111700001901128700002301147700002201170700001701192856011801209 2020 eng d00aAdvances in reduced order methods for parametric industrial problems in computational fluid dynamics0 aAdvances in reduced order methods for parametric industrial prob3 aReduced order modeling has gained considerable attention in recent decades owing to the advantages offered in reduced computational times and multiple solutions for parametric problems. The focus of this manuscript is the application of model order reduction techniques in various engineering and scientific applications including but not limited to mechanical, naval and aeronautical engineering. The focus here is kept limited to computational fluid mechanics and related applications. The advances in the reduced order modeling with proper orthogonal decomposition and reduced basis method are presented as well as a brief discussion of dynamic mode decomposition and also some present advances in the parameter space reduction. Here, an overview of the challenges faced and possible solutions are presented with examples from various problems.

1 aRozza, Gianluigi1 aMalik, M.H.1 aDemo, Nicola1 aTezzele, Marco1 aGirfoglio, Michele1 aStabile, Giovanni1 aMola, Andrea uhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85075395686&partnerID=40&md5=fb0b1a3cfdfd35a104db9921bc9be67501480nas a2200157 4500008004100000245009400041210006900135490000600204520097900210100001901189700001701208700002201225700001701247700002101264856003701285 2020 eng d00aEnhancing CFD predictions in shape design problems by model and parameter space reduction0 aEnhancing CFD predictions in shape design problems by model and 0 v73 aIn this work we present an advanced computational pipeline for the approximation and prediction of the lift coefficient of a parametrized airfoil profile. The non-intrusive reduced order method is based on dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and it is coupled with dynamic active subspaces (DyAS) to enhance the future state prediction of the target function and reduce the parameter space dimensionality. The pipeline is based on high-fidelity simulations carried out by the application of finite volume method for turbulent flows, and automatic mesh morphing through radial basis functions interpolation technique. The proposed pipeline is able to save 1/3 of the overall computational resources thanks to the application of DMD. Moreover exploiting DyAS and performing the regression on a lower dimensional space results in the reduction of the relative error in the approximation of the time-varying lift coefficient by a factor 2 with respect to using only the DMD.

1 aTezzele, Marco1 aDemo, Nicola1 aStabile, Giovanni1 aMola, Andrea1 aRozza, Gianluigi uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2001.0523701572nas a2200181 4500008004100000245008200041210006900123300001200192490000800204520090200212100002201114700001701136700001901153700002301172700002201195700002101217856015201238 2020 eng d00aReduced order isogeometric analysis approach for pdes in parametrized domains0 aReduced order isogeometric analysis approach for pdes in paramet a153-1700 v1373 aIn this contribution, we coupled the isogeometric analysis to a reduced order modelling technique in order to provide a computationally efficient solution in parametric domains. In details, we adopt the free-form deformation method to obtain the parametric formulation of the domain and proper orthogonal decomposition with interpolation for the computational reduction of the model. This technique provides a real-time solution for any parameter by combining several solutions, in this case computed using isogeometric analysis on different geometrical configurations of the domain, properly mapped into a reference configuration. We underline that this reduced order model requires only the full-order solutions, making this approach non-intrusive. We present in this work the results of the application of this methodology to a heat conduction problem inside a deformable collector pipe.

1 aGarotta, Fabrizio1 aDemo, Nicola1 aTezzele, Marco1 aCarraturo, Massimo1 aReali, Alessandro1 aRozza, Gianluigi uhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85089615035&doi=10.1007%2f978-3-030-48721-8_7&partnerID=40&md5=7b15836ae65fa28dcfe8733788d7730c02116nas a2200133 4500008004100000245013800041210006900179520154200248100001701790700001901807700001701826700002101843856011801864 2019 eng d00aA complete data-driven framework for the efficient solution of parametric shape design and optimisation in naval engineering problems0 acomplete datadriven framework for the efficient solution of para3 aIn the reduced order modeling (ROM) framework, the solution of a parametric partial differential equation is approximated by combining the high-fidelity solutions of the problem at hand for several properly chosen configurations. Examples of the ROM application, in the naval field, can be found in [31, 24]. Mandatory ingredient for the ROM methods is the relation between the high-fidelity solutions and the parameters. Dealing with geometrical parameters, especially in the industrial context, this relation may be unknown and not trivial (simulations over hand morphed geometries) or very complex (high number of parameters or many nested morphing techniques). To overcome these scenarios, we propose in this contribution an efficient and complete data-driven framework involving ROM techniques for shape design and optimization, extending the pipeline presented in [7]. By applying the singular value decomposition (SVD) to the points coordinates defining the hull geometry — assuming the topology is inaltered by the deformation —, we are able to compute the optimal space which the deformed geometries belong to, hence using the modal coefficients as the new parameters we can reconstruct the parametric formulation of the domain. Finally the output of interest is approximated using the proper orthogonal decomposition with interpolation technique. To conclude, we apply this framework to a naval shape design problem where the bulbous bow is morphed to reduce the total resistance of the ship advancing in calm water.

1 aDemo, Nicola1 aTezzele, Marco1 aMola, Andrea1 aRozza, Gianluigi uhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85075342565&partnerID=40&md5=d76b8a1290053e7a84fb8801c0e6bb3d02037nas a2200133 4500008004100000245013800041210006900179520154400248100001701792700001901809700001701828700002101845856003701866 2019 eng d00aA complete data-driven framework for the efficient solution of parametric shape design and optimisation in naval engineering problems0 acomplete datadriven framework for the efficient solution of para3 aIn the reduced order modeling (ROM) framework, the solution of a parametric partial differential equation is approximated by combining the high-fidelity solutions of the problem at hand for several properly chosen configurations. Examples of the ROM application, in the naval field, can be found in [31, 24]. Mandatory ingredient for the ROM methods is the relation between the high-fidelity solutions and the parameters. Dealing with geometrical parameters, especially in the industrial context, this relation may be unknown and not trivial (simulations over hand morphed geometries) or very complex (high number of parameters or many nested morphing techniques). To overcome these scenarios, we propose in this contribution an efficient and complete data-driven framework involving ROM techniques for shape design and optimization, extending the pipeline presented in [7]. By applying the singular value decomposition (SVD) to the points coordinates defining the hull geometry –- assuming the topology is inaltered by the deformation –-, we are able to compute the optimal space which the deformed geometries belong to, hence using the modal coefficients as the new parameters we can reconstruct the parametric formulation of the domain. Finally the output of interest is approximated using the proper orthogonal decomposition with interpolation technique. To conclude, we apply this framework to a naval shape design problem where the bulbous bow is morphed to reduce the total resistance of the ship advancing in calm water.

1 aDemo, Nicola1 aTezzele, Marco1 aMola, Andrea1 aRozza, Gianluigi uhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.0598201894nas a2200145 4500008004100000245010300041210006900144300001200213490000800225520130700233100001701540700001901557700002101576856015101597 2019 eng d00aA non-intrusive approach for the reconstruction of POD modal coefficients through active subspaces0 anonintrusive approach for the reconstruction of POD modal coeffi a873-8810 v3473 aReduced order modeling (ROM) provides an efficient framework to compute solutions of parametric problems. Basically, it exploits a set of precomputed high-fidelity solutions—computed for properly chosen parameters, using a full-order model—in order to find the low dimensional space that contains the solution manifold. Using this space, an approximation of the numerical solution for new parameters can be computed in real-time response scenario, thanks to the reduced dimensionality of the problem. In a ROM framework, the most expensive part from the computational viewpoint is the calculation of the numerical solutions using the full-order model. Of course, the number of collected solutions is strictly related to the accuracy of the reduced order model. In this work, we aim at increasing the precision of the model also for few input solutions by coupling the proper orthogonal decomposition with interpolation (PODI)—a data-driven reduced order method—with the active subspace (AS) property, an emerging tool for reduction in parameter space. The enhanced ROM results in a reduced number of input solutions to reach the desired accuracy. In this contribution, we present the numerical results obtained by applying this method to a structural problem and in a fluid dynamics one.

1 aDemo, Nicola1 aTezzele, Marco1 aRozza, Gianluigi uhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85075379471&doi=10.1016%2fj.crme.2019.11.012&partnerID=40&md5=dcb27af39dc14dc8c3a4a5f681f7d84b02446nas a2200121 4500008004100000245014200041210006900183520189700252100001902149700001702168700002102185856011802206 2019 eng d00aShape optimization through proper orthogonal decomposition with interpolation and dynamic mode decomposition enhanced by active subspaces0 aShape optimization through proper orthogonal decomposition with 3 aWe propose a numerical pipeline for shape optimization in naval engineering involving two different non-intrusive reduced order method (ROM) techniques. Such methods are proper orthogonal decomposition with interpolation (PODI) and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). The ROM proposed will be enhanced by active subspaces (AS) as a pre-processing tool that reduce the parameter space dimension and suggest better sampling of the input space. We will focus on geometrical parameters describing the perturbation of a reference bulbous bow through the free form deformation (FFD) technique. The ROM are based on a finite volume method (FV) to simulate the multi-phase incompressible flow around the deformed hulls. In previous works we studied the reduction of the parameter space in naval engineering through AS [38, 10] focusing on different parts of the hull. PODI and DMD have been employed for the study of fast and reliable shape optimization cycles on a bulbous bow in [9]. The novelty of this work is the simultaneous reduction of both the input parameter space and the output fields of interest. In particular AS will be trained computing the total drag resistance of a hull advancing in calm water and its gradients with respect to the input parameters. DMD will improve the performance of each simulation of the campaign using only few snapshots of the solution fields in order to predict the regime state of the system. Finally PODI will interpolate the coefficients of the POD decomposition of the output fields for a fast approximation of all the fields at new untried parameters given by the optimization algorithm. This will result in a non-intrusive data-driven numerical optimization pipeline completely independent with respect to the full order solver used and it can be easily incorporated into existing numerical pipelines, from the reference CAD to the optimal shape.

1 aTezzele, Marco1 aDemo, Nicola1 aRozza, Gianluigi uhttps://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85075390244&partnerID=40&md5=3e1f2e9a2539d34594caff13766c94b802869nas a2200241 4500008004100000022002200041245016200063210006900225260007400294520193000368653002102298653002802319653003102347653003202378653002602410653003002436653002602466100001702492700001902509700001702528700002102545856006102566 2018 eng d a978-1-880653-87-600aAn efficient shape parametrisation by free-form deformation enhanced by active subspace for hull hydrodynamic ship design problems in open source environment0 aefficient shape parametrisation by freeform deformation enhanced aSapporo, JapanbInternational Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers3 aIn this contribution, we present the results of the application of a parameter space reduction methodology based on active subspaces to the hull hydrodynamic design problem. Several parametric deformations of an initial hull shape are considered to assess the influence of the shape parameters considered on the hull total drag. The hull resistance is typically computed by means of numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic flow past the ship. Given the high number of parameters involved - which might result in a high number of time consuming hydrodynamic simulations - assessing whether the parameters space can be reduced would lead to considerable computational cost reduction. Thus, the main idea of this work is to employ the active subspaces to identify possible lower dimensional structures in the parameter space, or to verify the parameter distribution in the position of the control points. To this end, a fully automated procedure has been implemented to produce several small shape perturbations of an original hull CAD geometry which are then used to carry out high-fidelity flow simulations and collect data for the active subspaces analysis. To achieve full automation of the open source pipeline described, both the free form deformation methodology employed for the hull perturbations and the solver based on unsteady potential flow theory, with fully nonlinear free surface treatment, are directly interfaced with CAD data structures and operate using IGES vendor-neutral file formats as input files. The computational cost of the fluid dynamic simulations is further reduced through the application of dynamic mode decomposition to reconstruct the steady state total drag value given only few initial snapshots of the simulation. The active subspaces analysis is here applied to the geometry of the DTMB-5415 naval combatant hull, which is which is a common benchmark in ship hydrodynamics simulations.10aActive subspaces10aBoundary element method10aDynamic mode decomposition10aFluid structure interaction10aFree form deformation10aFully nonlinear potential10aNumerical towing tank1 aDemo, Nicola1 aTezzele, Marco1 aMola, Andrea1 aRozza, Gianluigi uhttps://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/ISOPE-I-18-48100373nas a2200133 4500008004100000245003700041210003600078300000800114490000600122100001700128700001900145700002100164856005400185 2018 eng d00aEZyRB: Easy Reduced Basis method0 aEZyRB Easy Reduced Basis method a6610 v31 aDemo, Nicola1 aTezzele, Marco1 aRozza, Gianluigi uhttps://joss.theoj.org/papers/10.21105/joss.0066101777nas a2200157 4500008004100000245013300041210006900174260003000243520120300273100001901476700001701495700002101512700001701533700002101550856004801571 2018 eng d00aModel Order Reduction by means of Active Subspaces and Dynamic Mode Decomposition for Parametric Hull Shape Design Hydrodynamics0 aModel Order Reduction by means of Active Subspaces and Dynamic M aTrieste, ItalybIOS Press3 aWe present the results of the application of a parameter space reduction methodology based on active subspaces (AS) to the hull hydrodynamic design problem. Several parametric deformations of an initial hull shape are considered to assess the influence of the shape parameters on the hull wave resistance. Such problem is relevant at the preliminary stages of the ship design, when several flow simulations are carried out by the engineers to establish a certain sensibility with respect to the parameters, which might result in a high number of time consuming hydrodynamic simulations. The main idea of this work is to employ the AS to identify possible lower dimensional structures in the parameter space. The complete pipeline involves the use of free form deformation to parametrize and deform the hull shape, the full order solver based on unsteady potential flow theory with fully nonlinear free surface treatment directly interfaced with CAD, the use of dynamic mode decomposition to reconstruct the final steady state given only few snapshots of the simulation, and the reduction of the parameter space by AS, and shared subspace. Response surface method is used to minimize the total drag.1 aTezzele, Marco1 aDemo, Nicola1 aGadalla, Mahmoud1 aMola, Andrea1 aRozza, Gianluigi uhttp://ebooks.iospress.nl/publication/4927000402nas a2200133 4500008004100000245004500041210004400086300000800130490000600138100001700144700001900161700002100180856006700201 2018 eng d00aPyDMD: Python Dynamic Mode Decomposition0 aPyDMD Python Dynamic Mode Decomposition a5300 v31 aDemo, Nicola1 aTezzele, Marco1 aRozza, Gianluigi uhttps://joss.theoj.org/papers/734e4326edd5062c6e8ee98d03df9e1d01912nas a2200157 4500008004100000245009800041210006900139260003000208520136800238100001701606700001901623700002101642700002201663700002101685856004801706 2018 eng d00aShape Optimization by means of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Dynamic Mode Decomposition0 aShape Optimization by means of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition a aTrieste, ItalybIOS Press3 aShape optimization is a challenging task in many engineering fields, since the numerical solutions of parametric system may be computationally expensive. This work presents a novel optimization procedure based on reduced order modeling, applied to a naval hull design problem. The advantage introduced by this method is that the solution for a specific parameter can be expressed as the combination of few numerical solutions computed at properly chosen parametric points. The reduced model is built using the proper orthogonal decomposition with interpolation (PODI) method. We use the free form deformation (FFD) for an automated perturbation of the shape, and the finite volume method to simulate the multiphase incompressible flow around the deformed hulls. Further computational reduction is done by the dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) technique: from few high dimensional snapshots, the system evolution is reconstructed and the final state of the simulation is faithfully approximated. Finally the global optimization algorithm iterates over the reduced space: the approximated drag and lift coefficients are projected to the hull surface, hence the resistance is evaluated for the new hulls until the convergence to the optimal shape is achieved. We will present the results obtained applying the described procedure to a typical Fincantieri cruise ship.1 aDemo, Nicola1 aTezzele, Marco1 aGustin, Gianluca1 aLavini, Gianpiero1 aRozza, Gianluigi uhttp://ebooks.iospress.nl/publication/4922900594nas a2200145 4500008004100000245009400041210006900135260001300204300001200217100001900229700001700248700003200265700002600297856012500323 2015 eng d00aExperience on vectorizing lattice Boltzmann kernels for multi-and many-core architectures0 aExperience on vectorizing lattice Boltzmann kernels for multiand bSpringer a53–621 aCalore, Enrico1 aDemo, Nicola1 aSchifano, Sebastiano, Fabio1 aTripiccione, Raffaele uhttps://www.math.sissa.it/publication/experience-vectorizing-lattice-boltzmann-kernels-multi-and-many-core-architectures