We describe some applications of group- and bundle-theoretic methods in solid state physics, showing how symmetries lead to a proof of the localization of electrons in gapped crystalline solids, as e.g. insulators and semiconductors. We shortly review the Bloch-Floquet decomposition of periodic operators, and the related concepts of Bloch frames and composite Wannier functions. We show that the latter are almost-exponentially localized if and only if there exists a smooth periodic Bloch frame, and that the obstruction to the latter condition is the triviality of a Hermitian vector bundle, called the Bloch bundle. The rôle of additional Z_2-symmetries, as time-reversal and space-reflection symmetry, is discussed, showing how time-reversal symmetry implies the triviality of the Bloch bundle, both in the bosonic and in the fermionic case. Moreover, the same Z_2-symmetry allows to define a finer notion of isomorphism and, consequently, to define new topological invariants, which agree with the indices introduced by Fu, Kane and Mele in the context of topological insulators.

1 aMonaco, Domenico1 aPanati, Gianluca uhttp://urania.sissa.it/xmlui/handle/1963/3446801403nas a2200133 4500008004300000245004000043210003900083260002400122520102800146100002101174700001901195700001901214856003601233 2003 en_Ud 00aSpace-adiabatic perturbation theory0 aSpaceadiabatic perturbation theory bInternational Press3 aWe study approximate solutions to the Schr\\\\\\\"odinger equation $i\\\\epsi\\\\partial\\\\psi_t(x)/\\\\partial t = H(x,-i\\\\epsi\\\\nabla_x) \\\\psi_t(x)$ with the Hamiltonian given as the Weyl quantization of the symbol $H(q,p)$ taking values in the space of bounded operators on the Hilbert space $\\\\Hi_{\\\\rm f}$ of fast ``internal\\\'\\\' degrees of freedom. By assumption $H(q,p)$ has an isolated energy band. Using a method of Nenciu and Sordoni \\\\cite{NS} we prove that interband transitions are suppressed to any order in $\\\\epsi$. As a consequence, associated to that energy band there exists a subspace of $L^2(\\\\mathbb{R}^d,\\\\Hi _{\\\\rm f})$ almost invariant under the unitary time evolution. We develop a systematic perturbation scheme for the computation of effective Hamiltonians which govern approximately the intraband time evolution. As examples for the general perturbation scheme we discuss the Dirac and Born-Oppenheimer type Hamiltonians and we reconsider also the time-adiabatic theory.1 aPanati, Gianluca1 aSpohn, Herbert1 aTeufel, Stefan uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/304100307nas a2200097 4500008004100000245005100041210005000092260001000142100002100152856003600173 2002 en d00aSpace-adiabatic Decoupling in Quantum Dynamics0 aSpaceadiabatic Decoupling in Quantum Dynamics bSISSA1 aPanati, Gianluca uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/636001131nas a2200133 4500008004100000245006000041210005900101260003000160520071200190100002100902700001900923700001900942856003600961 2002 en d00aSpace-adiabatic perturbation theory in quantum dynamics0 aSpaceadiabatic perturbation theory in quantum dynamics bAmerican Physical Society3 aA systematic perturbation scheme is developed for approximate solutions to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation with a space-adiabatic Hamiltonian. For a particular isolated energy band, the basic approach is to separate kinematics from dynamics. The kinematics is defined through a subspace of the full Hilbert space for which transitions to other band subspaces are suppressed to all orders, and the dynamics operates in that subspace in terms of an effective intraband Hamiltonian. As novel applications, we discuss the Born-Oppenheimer theory to second order and derive for the first time the nonperturbative definition of the g factor of the electron within nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics.1 aPanati, Gianluca1 aSpohn, Herbert1 aTeufel, Stefan uhttp://hdl.handle.net/1963/5985