This paper extends the reduced basis method for the solution of parametrized optimal control problems presented in Negri et al. (2013) to the case of noncoercive (elliptic) equations, such as the Stokes equations. We discuss both the theoretical properties-with particular emphasis on the stability of the resulting double nested saddle-point problems and on aggregated error estimates-and the computational aspects of the method. Then, we apply it to solve a benchmark vorticity minimization problem for a parametrized bluff body immersed in a two or a three-dimensional flow through boundary control, demonstrating the effectivity of the methodology.

%B Computers and Mathematics with Applications %V 69 %P 319–336 %G eng %R 10.1016/j.camwa.2014.12.010 %0 Journal Article %J Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng. 2015;284:1147–1180 %D 2015 %T Reduced Basis Isogeometric Methods (RB-IGA) for the real-time simulation of potential flows about parametrized NACA airfoils %A Andrea Manzoni %A Filippo Salmoiraghi %A Luca Heltai %X We present a Reduced Basis (RB) method based on Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) for the rapid and reliable evaluation of PDE systems characterized by complex geometrical features. At the current state of the art, this is the first case of coupling between RB and IGA methods. The construction of the RB method relies on an Isogeometric Boundary Element Method (IGA-BEM) as the high-fidelity technique, allowing a direct interface with Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools. A suitable Empirical Interpolation Method (EIM) ensures an efficient offline/online decomposition between the construction and the evaluation of the RB method. We consider the real-time simulation of potential flows past airfoils, parametrized with respect to the angle of attack and the NACA number identifying their shape, and we provide a validation of our methodology with respect to experimental data and reference numerical codes, showing in both cases a very good agreement.We present a Reduced Basis (RB) method based on Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) for the rapid and reliable evaluation of PDE systems characterized by complex geometrical features. At the current state of the art, this is the first case of coupling between RB and IGA methods. The construction of the RB method relies on an Isogeometric Boundary Element Method (IGA-BEM) as the high-fidelity technique, allowing a direct interface with Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools. A suitable Empirical Interpolation Method (EIM) ensures an efficient offline/online decomposition between the construction and the evaluation of the RB method. We consider the real-time simulation of potential flows past airfoils, parametrized with respect to the angle of attack and the NACA number identifying their shape, and we provide a validation of our methodology with respect to experimental data and reference numerical codes, showing in both cases a very good agreement. %B Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng. 2015;284:1147–1180 %G en %1 34587 %2 Mathematics %4 1 %# MAT/08 %$ Submitted by Luca Heltai (heltai@sissa.it) on 2015-03-03T16:15:31Z No. of bitstreams: 1 RB_IGA_BEM.pdf: 725470 bytes, checksum: e2fe6fabfdbe6118e9ef07fb185113af (MD5) %R 10.1016/j.cma.2014.11.037 %0 Journal Article %D 2015 %T Supremizer stabilization of POD-Galerkin approximation of parametrized Navier-Stokes equations %A Francesco Ballarin %A Andrea Manzoni %A Alfio Quarteroni %A Gianluigi Rozza %X In this work, we present a stable proper orthogonal decomposition–Galerkin approximation for parametrized steady incompressible Navier–Stokes equations with low Reynolds number. %I Wiley %G en %U http://urania.sissa.it/xmlui/handle/1963/34701 %1 34915 %2 Mathematics %4 1 %# MAT/08 %$ Submitted by Gianluigi Rozza (grozza@sissa.it) on 2015-10-22T11:39:58Z No. of bitstreams: 1 IJNME_2014.pdf: 6761966 bytes, checksum: ad65f2c4d2dbd30a4a1590ff42ee49a0 (MD5) %R 10.1002/nme.4772 %0 Report %D 2014 %T An efficient computational framework for reduced basis approximation and a posteriori error estimation of parametrized Navier-Stokes flows %A Andrea Manzoni %K Reduced Basis Method, parametrized Navier-Stokes equations, steady incompressible fluids, a posteriori error estimation, approximation stability %X We present the current Reduced Basis framework for the efficient numerical approximation of parametrized steady Navier-Stokes equations. We have extended the existing setting developed in the last decade (see e.g. [Deparis, Veroy & Patera, Quarteroni & Rozza] to more general affine and nonaffine parametrizations (such as volume-based techniques), to a simultaneous velocity-pressure error estimates and to a fully decoupled Offline/Online procedure in order to speedup the solution of the reduced-order problem. This is particularly suitable for real-time and many-query contexts, which are both part of our final goal. Furthermore, we present an efficient numerical implementation for treating nonlinear advection terms in a convenient way. A residual-based a posteriori error estimation with respect to a truth, full-order Finite Element approximation is provided for joint pressure/velocity errors, according to the Brezzi-Rappaz-Raviart stability theory. To do this, we take advantage of an extension of the Successive Constraint Method for the estimation of stability factors and of a suitable fixed-point algorithm for the approximation of Sobolev embedding constants. Finally, we present some numerical test cases, in order to show both the approximation properties and the computational efficiency of the derived framework. %G en %1 7291 %2 Mathematics %4 1 %# MAT/08 ANALISI NUMERICA %$ Submitted by Andrea Manzoni (amanzoni@sissa.it) on 2014-02-12T17:36:11Z No. of bitstreams: 1 AM_2014_M2AN_preprint.pdf: 5678588 bytes, checksum: 9589729cb84fffc5229b4b071e5e69fb (MD5) %0 Journal Article %D 2014 %T Model Order Reduction in Fluid Dynamics: Challenges and Perspectives %A Toni Lassila %A Andrea Manzoni %A Alfio Quarteroni %A Gianluigi Rozza %X This chapter reviews techniques of model reduction of fluid dynamics systems. Fluid systems are known to be difficult to reduce efficiently due to several reasons. First of all, they exhibit strong nonlinearities - which are mainly related either to nonlinear convection terms and/or some geometric variability - that often cannot be treated by simple linearization. Additional difficulties arise when attempting model reduction of unsteady flows, especially when long-term transient behavior needs to be accurately predicted using reduced order models and more complex features, such as turbulence or multiphysics phenomena, have to be taken into consideration. We first discuss some general principles that apply to many parametric model order reduction problems, then we apply them on steady and unsteady viscous flows modelled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We address questions of inf-sup stability, certification through error estimation, computational issues and-in the unsteady case - long-time stability of the reduced model. Moreover, we provide an extensive list of literature references. %I Springer %G en %1 34923 %2 Mathematics %4 1 %$ Submitted by gfeltrin@sissa.it (gfeltrin@sissa.it) on 2015-10-22T15:11:51Z No. of bitstreams: 1 preprint2014.pdf: 287014 bytes, checksum: b195410aa3f63643829ed25f1adb6520 (MD5) %R 10.1007/978-3-319-02090-7_9 %0 Journal Article %D 2014 %T Shape Optimization by Free-Form Deformation: Existence Results and Numerical Solution for Stokes Flows %A Francesco Ballarin %A Andrea Manzoni %A Gianluigi Rozza %A Sandro Salsa %X Shape optimization problems governed by PDEs result from many applications in computational fluid dynamics. These problems usually entail very large computational costs and require also a suitable approach for representing and deforming efficiently the shape of the underlying geometry, as well as for computing the shape gradient of the cost functional to be minimized. Several approaches based on the displacement of a set of control points have been developed in the last decades, such as the so-called free-form deformations. In this paper we present a new theoretical result which allows to recast free-form deformations into the general class of perturbation of identity maps, and to guarantee the compactness of the set of admissible shapes. Moreover, we address both a general optimization framework based on the continuous shape gradient and a numerical procedure for solving efficiently three-dimensional optimal design problems. This framework is applied to the optimal design of immersed bodies in Stokes flows, for which we consider the numerical solution of a benchmark case study from literature. %I Springer %G en %U http://urania.sissa.it/xmlui/handle/1963/34698 %1 34914 %2 Mathematics %4 1 %$ Approved for entry into archive by Maria Pia Calandra (calapia@sissa.it) on 2015-10-22T11:24:27Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 0 %R 10.1007/s10915-013-9807-8 %0 Journal Article %J Comptes Rendus Mathematique. Volume 351, Issue 15-16, August 2013, Pages 593-598 %D 2013 %T A combination between the reduced basis method and the ANOVA expansion: On the computation of sensitivity indices %A Denis Devaud %A Andrea Manzoni %A Gianluigi Rozza %K Partial differential equations %XWe consider a method to efficiently evaluate in a real-time context an output based on the numerical solution of a partial differential equation depending on a large number of parameters. We state a result allowing to improve the computational performance of a three-step RB-ANOVA-RB method. This is a combination of the reduced basis (RB) method and the analysis of variations (ANOVA) expansion, aiming at compressing the parameter space without affecting the accuracy of the output. The idea of this method is to compute a first (coarse) RB approximation of the output of interest involving all the parameter components, but with a large tolerance on the a posteriori error estimate; then, we evaluate the ANOVA expansion of the output and freeze the least important parameter components; finally, considering a restricted model involving just the retained parameter components, we compute a second (fine) RB approximation with a smaller tolerance on the a posteriori error estimate. The fine RB approximation entails lower computational costs than the coarse one, because of the reduction of parameter dimensionality. Our result provides a criterion to avoid the computation of those terms in the ANOVA expansion that are related to the interaction between parameters in the bilinear form, thus making the RB-ANOVA-RB procedure computationally more feasible.

%B Comptes Rendus Mathematique. Volume 351, Issue 15-16, August 2013, Pages 593-598 %I Elsevier %G en %U http://hdl.handle.net/1963/7389 %1 7434 %2 Mathematics %4 1 %# MAT/05 ANALISI MATEMATICA %$ Submitted by Maria Pia Calandra (calapia@sissa.it) on 2014-06-19T08:56:09Z No. of bitstreams: 1 Devaud_Manzoni_Rozza_2013.pdf: 564002 bytes, checksum: 4c93e74468534915513e6805d440dee9 (MD5) %R 10.1016/j.crma.2013.07.023 %0 Journal Article %J Numerische Mathematik, 2013 %D 2013 %T Reduced basis approximation and a posteriori error estimation for Stokes flows in parametrized geometries: roles of the inf-sup stability constants %A Gianluigi Rozza %A Phuong Huynh %A Andrea Manzoni %K parametrized Stokes equations %X In this paper we review and we extend the reduced basis approximation and a posteriori error estimation for steady Stokes flows in a ffinely parametrized geometries, focusing on the role played by the Brezzi\\\'s and Babu ska\\\'s stability constants. The crucial ingredients of the methodology are a Galerkin projection onto a low-dimensional space of basis functions properly selected, an a ne parametric dependence enabling to perform competitive Off ine-Online splitting in the computational\\r\\nprocedure and a rigorous a posteriori error estimation on eld variables.\\r\\nThe combination of these three factors yields substantial computational savings which are at the basis of an e fficient model order reduction, ideally suited for real-time simulation and many-query contexts (e.g. optimization, control or parameter identi cation). In particular, in this work we focus on i) the stability of the reduced basis approximation based on the Brezzi\\\'s saddle point theory and the introduction of a supremizer operator on the pressure terms, ii) a rigorous a posteriori error estimation procedure for velocity and pressure elds based on the Babu ska\\\'s inf-sup constant (including residuals calculations), iii) the computation of a lower bound of the stability constant, and iv) di erent options for the reduced basis spaces construction. We present some illustrative results for both\\r\\ninterior and external steady Stokes flows in parametrized geometries representing two parametrized classical Poiseuille and Couette \\r\\nflows, a channel contraction and a simple flow control problem around a curved obstacle. %B Numerische Mathematik, 2013 %I Springer %G en %U http://hdl.handle.net/1963/6339 %1 6269 %2 Mathematics %4 1 %# MAT/08 ANALISI NUMERICA %$ Submitted by Gianluigi Rozza (grozza@sissa.it) on 2012-12-13T17:19:05Z\\nNo. of bitstreams: 1\\nStokes_HMR10_SISSA_report.pdf: 4641267 bytes, checksum: 82a163163a62d0b9deef8d5d6590f8d7 (MD5) %0 Journal Article %J SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing %D 2013 %T Reduced basis method for parametrized elliptic optimal control problems %A Federico Negri %A Gianluigi Rozza %A Andrea Manzoni %A Alfio Quarteroni %X We propose a suitable model reduction paradigm-the certified reduced basis method (RB)-for the rapid and reliable solution of parametrized optimal control problems governed by partial differential equations. In particular, we develop the methodology for parametrized quadratic optimization problems with elliptic equations as a constraint and infinite-dimensional control variable. First, we recast the optimal control problem in the framework of saddle-point problems in order to take advantage of the already developed RB theory for Stokes-type problems. Then, the usual ingredients of the RB methodology are called into play: a Galerkin projection onto a low-dimensional space of basis functions properly selected by an adaptive procedure; an affine parametric dependence enabling one to perform competitive offline-online splitting in the computational procedure; and an efficient and rigorous a posteriori error estimate on the state, control, and adjoint variables as well as on the cost functional. Finally, we address some numerical tests that confirm our theoretical results and show the efficiency of the proposed technique. %B SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing %V 35 %P A2316–A2340 %G eng %R 10.1137/120894737 %0 Report %D 2013 %T A Reduced Computational and Geometrical Framework for Inverse Problems in Haemodynamics %A Toni Lassila %A Andrea Manzoni %A Alfio Quarteroni %A Gianluigi Rozza %I SISSA %G en %1 6571 %2 Mathematics %4 1 %# MAT/08 ANALISI NUMERICA %$ Submitted by Gianluigi Rozza (grozza@sissa.it) on 2013-04-30T14:47:07Z No. of bitstreams: 1 LMQR_inverse_problems_Haemo.pdf: 2913600 bytes, checksum: 9bff594072e6c7b4a664bdade361a1a9 (MD5) %0 Report %D 2013 %T A reduced-order strategy for solving inverse Bayesian identification problems in physiological flows %A Toni Lassila %A Andrea Manzoni %A Alfio Quarteroni %A Gianluigi Rozza %I SISSA %G en %1 6555 %2 Mathematics %4 1 %# MAT/08 ANALISI NUMERICA %$ Submitted by Gianluigi Rozza (grozza@sissa.it) on 2013-04-12T10:16:42Z\nNo. of bitstreams: 1\nHanoi_RQML_2012_REVISED.pdf: 1360222 bytes, checksum: 4cb9ffaaf9fd67e3eacf4d9c060d0940 (MD5) %0 Report %D 2013 %T Reduction Strategies for Shape Dependent Inverse Problems in Haemodynamics %A Toni Lassila %A Andrea Manzoni %A Gianluigi Rozza %I SISSA %G en %1 6554 %2 Mathematics %4 1 %# MAT/08 ANALISI NUMERICA %$ Submitted by Gianluigi Rozza (grozza@sissa.it) on 2013-04-12T09:59:54Z\nNo. of bitstreams: 1\n03910397-1.pdf: 531448 bytes, checksum: 0ec611490748bed35d10f612e8296f27 (MD5) %0 Journal Article %J Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis, in press, 2012-13 %D 2012 %T Boundary control and shape optimization for the robust design of bypass anastomoses under uncertainty %A Toni Lassila %A Andrea Manzoni %A Alfio Quarteroni %A Gianluigi Rozza %K shape optimization %X We review the optimal design of an arterial bypass graft following either a (i) boundary optimal control approach, or a (ii) shape optimization formulation. The main focus is quantifying and treating the uncertainty in the residual flow when the hosting artery is not completely occluded,\\r\\nfor which the worst-case in terms of recirculation e ffects is inferred to correspond to a strong ori fice flow through near-complete occlusion. A worst-case optimal control approach is applied to the steady\\r\\nNavier-Stokes equations in 2D to identify an anastomosis angle and a cu ed shape that are robust with respect to a possible range of residual \\r\\nflows. We also consider a reduced order modelling framework\\r\\nbased on reduced basis methods in order to make the robust design problem computationally feasible. The results obtained in 2D are compared with simulations in a 3D geometry but without model\\r\\nreduction or the robust framework. %B Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis, in press, 2012-13 %I Cambridge University Press %G en %U http://hdl.handle.net/1963/6337 %1 6267 %2 Mathematics %4 1 %# MAT/08 ANALISI NUMERICA %$ Submitted by Gianluigi Rozza (grozza@sissa.it) on 2012-12-13T15:38:41Z\\nNo. of bitstreams: 1\\nLMQR_M2AN_Special_SISSAreport.pdf: 5702019 bytes, checksum: 037e51bde713582eff1ee9766b1b4559 (MD5) %0 Book Section %B Springer, Indam Series, Vol. 4, 2012 %D 2012 %T Generalized reduced basis methods and n-width estimates for the approximation of the solution manifold of parametric PDEs %A Toni Lassila %A Andrea Manzoni %A Alfio Quarteroni %A Gianluigi Rozza %K solution manifold %X The set of solutions of a parameter-dependent linear partial di fferential equation with smooth coe fficients typically forms a compact manifold in a Hilbert space. In this paper we review the generalized reduced basis method as a fast computational tool for the uniform approximation of the solution manifold. We focus on operators showing an affi ne parametric dependence, expressed as a linear combination of parameter-independent operators through some smooth, parameter-dependent scalar functions. In the case that the parameter-dependent operator has a dominant term in its affi ne expansion, one can prove the existence of exponentially convergent uniform approximation spaces for the entire solution manifold. These spaces can be constructed without any assumptions on the parametric regularity of the manifold \\r\\nonly spatial regularity of the solutions is required. The exponential convergence rate is then inherited by the generalized reduced basis method. We provide a numerical example related to parametrized elliptic\\r\\nequations con rming the predicted convergence rates. %B Springer, Indam Series, Vol. 4, 2012 %I Springer %G en %U http://hdl.handle.net/1963/6340 %1 6270 %2 Mathematics %4 1 %# MAT/08 ANALISI NUMERICA %$ Submitted by Gianluigi Rozza (grozza@sissa.it) on 2012-12-13T17:47:45Z\\nNo. of bitstreams: 1\\nqlmr-bumi_FINAL_SISSAreport.pdf: 377397 bytes, checksum: ecaf5713afa6a6f68992f6331631aff4 (MD5) %0 Conference Proceedings %B European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering (ECCOMAS 2012) J. Eberhardsteiner et.al. (eds.), Vienna, Austria, 10-14 sept. 2012 %D 2012 %T Reduction strategies for PDE-constrained oprimization problems in Haemodynamics %A Gianluigi Rozza %A Andrea Manzoni %A Federico Negri %K inverse problems %X Solving optimal control problems for many different scenarios obtained by varying a set of parameters in the state system is a computationally extensive task. In this paper we present a new reduced framework for the formulation, the analysis and the numerical solution of parametrized PDE-constrained optimization problems. This framework is based on a suitable saddle-point formulation of the optimal control problem and exploits the reduced basis method for the rapid and reliable solution of parametrized PDEs, leading to a relevant computational reduction with respect to traditional discretization techniques such as the finite element method. This allows a very efficient evaluation of state solutions and cost functionals, leading to an effective solution of repeated optimal control problems, even on domains of variable shape, for which a further (geometrical) reduction is pursued, relying on flexible shape parametrization techniques. This setting is applied to the solution of two problems arising from haemodynamics, dealing with both data reconstruction and data assimilation over domains of variable shape,\\r\\nwhich can be recast in a common PDE-constrained optimization formulation. %B European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering (ECCOMAS 2012) J. Eberhardsteiner et.al. (eds.), Vienna, Austria, 10-14 sept. 2012 %G en %U http://hdl.handle.net/1963/6338 %1 6268 %2 Mathematics %4 1 %# MAT/08 ANALISI NUMERICA %$ Submitted by Gianluigi Rozza (grozza@sissa.it) on 2012-12-13T16:30:48Z\\r\\nNo. of bitstreams: 1\\r\\npaper_ECCOMAS2012_AM_SISSAreport.pdf: 4599005 bytes, checksum: 014a5a01276f25177386ad374a5917c8 (MD5)